When director Ken Rodgers decided to do a documentary looking back on the battles between late Raiders owner Al Davis and late NFL commissioner Pete Rozelle, he decided he wanted to tell the stories from their perspectives. With both men having died years ago, Rodgers used deepfake technology to make modern science fiction versions of the two main characters and used them to narrate the documentary that is rich in historical footage of both Davis and Rozelle from their battles over the AFL-NFL merger and the Raiders move to Los Angeles.
This finding could mean that the Capitol area generally was contaminated with anthrax, which fits with certain environmental sampling data, or it could mean that some subjects were exposed to the anthrax envelope before it was opened or had contact with those in groups 1 and 2, the article says. The other three groups, enrolled for comparison, were from outside the Capitol area and consisted of (5) 2 people who had contracted anthrax infections as a result of previous attacks in 2001, (6) 12 with no anthrax exposure, and (7) 7 who were unexposed but had previously been vaccinated against anthrax. Among nonimmunized people, anthrax antibodies were found only in those who were in the building at the time of the attack, mostly in those who were in Daschle’s offices (when tested before vaccination). Anthrax was found in the nasopharyngeal samples of slightly less than half (47.5%) of workers in groups 1 and 2, including all 13 who were in the office where the letter was opened and lesser proportions of those in adjoining offices. None of the people outside the building had positive samples. All the volunteers in groups 1, 2, and 3 (those in the building when the letter was opened) were given antibiotic treatment immediately, and 10 of the 20 people in group 4 (those outside the building but in the vicinity) also opted to take antibiotics. In addition, 51 of the 59 people in groups 1 and 2 received 3 doses of anthrax vaccine starting several weeks after the attack. The postexposure 3-dose vaccination schedule was “highly immunogenic,” given that anti-PA antibodies were found in more than 94% of subjects and CMI responses were seen in more than 86%, the researchers write. In other studies, 99% to 100% seroconversion was seen with a preventive 3-dose schedule. The standard anthrax vaccination schedule, used in the US military, involves 6 doses over 18 months. The researchers studied 124 people, divided into seven groups. The first four groups consisted of (1) 28 people who were in or near Daschle’s office and had positive nasopharyngeal cultures for anthrax, (2) 31 who were in or near the office but had negative cultures, (3) 24 who were elsewhere in the Hart Senate Office Building, and (4) 20 who were outside the building but in the Capitol area (and were presumed to be unexposed). Scientists who prospectively studied people who were in the vicinity when the letter was opened report that even people who were outside the building showed immune responses to anthrax, suggesting that the deadly spores spread more widely than expected. The letter was one of several mailed to two US senators and several media offices in the fall of 2001, resulting in 22 cases of anthrax, 5 of them fatal. Two tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fluorescence-activated cell sorting) were used to examine the subjects’ antibody and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to two anthrax proteins: protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF). They conclude that antibiotic treatment protected the infected subjects, who were generally young, from becoming clinically ill. “We do not know whether higher exposure could result in clinical disease even with antibiotics or what happens in immunocompromised or immunologically immature populations,” they state. “Despite postexposure prophylaxis with antibiotics, inhalation of B[acillus] anthracis spores resulted in stimulation of the immune system and possibly subclinical infection, and the greater the exposure, the more complete the immune response,” says the report by Denise L. Doolan of the Naval Medical Research Center in Silver Spring, Md., and associates from there and several other institutions. “Our data demonstrate that exposure to B. anthracis spores primed antibody and cellular responses in a dose-dependent and antigen-specific manner in immunized and unimmunized subjects, enhanced AVA-boost responses, and boosted recall responses in previously immunized subjects,” the researchers write. No significant differences in symptoms were seen between subjects with and without anthrax exposure and with and without immune responses, except for headache, which was more common in exposed people but correlated with the duration of antibiotic use. Jan 10, 2007 (CIDRAP News) The anthrax-laced letter sent to Sen. Tom Daschle’s office in 2001 may have affected more people than was recognized at the time, but the antibiotics and vaccinations given to potentially exposed people were highly effective, according to an immunologic study of the event. See also: The researchers, writing in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, also report that those who were exposed showed immune responses to anthrax even though they were immediately put on preventive antibiotic treatment. Further, they found that 3 doses of anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA)versus the standard 6-dose regimentriggered a strong immune response in those who were vaccinated after the attack. The researchers also report an inverse relationship between CMI responses and antibiotic treatment, which suggested that the treatment impeded anthrax spore germination, the report says. In the previously vaccinated volunteerswho were revaccinated during the studyimmune responses were strong even after a single new dose of vaccine. Doolan DL, Freilich DA, Brice GT, et al. The US Capitol bioterrorism anthrax exposures: clinical epidemiological and immunological characteristics. J Infect Dis 2007 Jan 15;195(2):174-84 [Full text] In the tests for CMI, the researchers found a direct relationship between presumed anthrax exposure and response rate. Unexpectedly, however, they found evidence of CMI in some people who were outside the building (group 4). For example, monocytic responses were detected in more than 70% of groups 1 and 2, 37.5% of group 3, and 30% of group 4. Monocytic responses for group 4 were significantly higher than those for unexposed controls (group 6). Hadler JL. Learning from the 2001 anthrax attacks: immunological characteristics. (Editorial) J Infect Dis 2007 Jan 15;195(2):163-4 [Full text] The data suggest, they add, that low-level anthrax exposure induces asymptomatic cellular immune responses without antibodies and that intermediate exposure induces both cellular and antibody responses.
Two minutes and eight seconds.That’s how much time the much-awaited State of the Nation address on Thursday dedicated to sport. It was delivered by President Mahama at the Parliament House.Sport was not high on the agenda.1. Scholarship for the golden girlThe President announced that Martha Bissah will receive a scholarship from government to develop her talent in the United States of America. “In athletics, consistent planning and the personal development of our (the nation’s) athletes, earned Ghana our first Gold medal at any level. “The 17-year old Martha Bissah from Kumasi who won Gold at the Youth Olympics for special mention,” Mahama said in Parliament on Thursday. He went on: “Martha will be afforded the opportunity to join other young athletes on scholarship in US Colleges where she can develop her talent.” Bissah ran a lifetime best to win Ghana’s first gold medal at the Youth Olympics in China last year. 2. Respect for the local football leaguesThe Ghana Football Association got a subtle dig to double-up their efforts in improving the local league. Despite their consistently vehement claims to the contrary, the nation’s football governing body have always been criticized for focusing just on developing the Black Stars brand.Analysts watching the State of the Nation address found it significant that the President echoed the prevailing notion. “The seeming total neglect of our local football league is a matter of concern to football loving fans,” Mahama lamented, going on to say to “urge the Football Association to turn its attention to improving the quality of our local league and work towards making it more attractive, exciting and worth following.”He also asked for some more attention to be given other junior national teams.”Let me urge the Ghana Football Association to put a lot more focus on the other national teams just like it does for the senior national team in order to adequately prepare them for their international competitions as well.”3. Thumbs up, Black Stars!But the President would not finish without praising the efforts of the senior national football team in the recently-ended Africa Cup of Nations.”I wish to once again congratulate the senior national team, the Black Stars, for their performance at the 2015 Africa Cup of Nations tournament.” “Many Ghanaians had lost hope in the Black Stars at the beginning of the tournament in Equatorial Guinea. They gathered themselves together, rose from the ashes of Brazil 2014 and prove themselves.”Team Ghana finished runners-up, having lost on penalties to neighbouring Ivory Coast on penalties, and the head of state reminded his subjects about the importance of putting the performance in context.”It is not the first silver medal for the Black Stars but the developments from Brazil is what has changed the dynamics here.” 4. InfrastructureIn one sentence, the President touched on the only real project that’s being worked on in the country in terms of sport facilities.”On the development of sporting infrastructure, work is progressing speedily on the Cape Coast Stadium and is expected to be completed this year.” And that was that.–