On Friday evening, October 14th 2011, in Tercentenary Theatre, Harvard’s extended family of faculty, students, staff, alumni and invited guests gathered together for a festive evening featuring fabulous desserts and a memorable musical performance.The Harvard Radcliffe Orchestra performed, accompanied by a chorus of over a hundred student voices followed by a solo performance by our own international celebrity cellist, Yo-Yo Ma ‘76.
Whether we know it or not, complex algorithms make decisions that affect nearly every aspect of our lives, determining whether we can borrow money or get hired, how much we pay for goods online, our TV and music choices, and how closely our neighborhood is policed. Thanks to the technological advances of big data, businesses tout such algorithms as tools that optimize our experiences, providing better predictive accuracy about customer needs and greater efficiency in the delivery of goods and services. And they do so, the explanation goes, without the distortion of human prejudice because they’re calculations based solely on numbers, which makes them inherently trustworthy.Sounds good, but it’s simply not true, says Harvard-trained mathematician Cathy O’Neil, Ph.D. ’99. In her new book, “Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy,” the data scientist argues that the mathematical models underpinning these algorithms aren’t just flawed, they are encoded opinions and biases disguised as empirical fact, silently introducing and enforcing inequities that inflict harm right under our noses. The Gazette spoke with O’Neil, who once worked as a quantitative analyst and now runs the popular Mathbabe blog, about what she calls the “lie” of mathematics and her push to get data scientists to provide more transparency for an often too-trusting public.GAZETTE: How did your work as a hedge fund quant prompt you to start thinking about how math is being used today? Had you given it thought before then?O’NEIL: It absolutely had not occurred to me before I was a quant. I was a very naive, apolitical person going into finance. I thought of mathematics as this powerful tool for clarity and then I was utterly disillusioned and really ashamed of the mortgage-backed securities [industry], which I saw as one of the driving forces for the  crisis and a mathematical lie. They implied that we had some mathematical, statistical evidence that these mortgage-backed securities were safe investments, when, in fact, we had nothing like that. The statisticians who were building these models were working in a company that was literally selling the ratings that they didn’t even believe in themselves. It was the first time I had seen mathematics being weaponized and it opened my eyes to that possibility.The people in charge of these companies, especially Moody’s, put pressure on these mathematicians to make them lie, but those mathematicians, at the end of the day, they did that. It was messed up and gross and I didn’t want to have anything to do with it. I spent some time in risk, after I left the hedge fund, trying to still kind of naively imagine that with better mathematics we could do a better job with risk. So I worked on the credit-default-swaps risk model. The credit default swaps were one of the big problems [of the 2008 financial crisis] and then once I got a better model, nobody cared. Nobody wanted the better model because nobody actually wants to know what their risk is. I ended up thinking, this is another example of how people are using mathematics, brandishing it as authoritative and trustworthy, but what’s actually going on behind the covers is corrupt. GAZETTE: Big data is often touted as a tool that delivers good things — more accuracy, efficiency, objectivity. But you say not so, and that big data has a “dark side.” Can you explain?O’NEIL: Big data essentially is a way of separating winners and losers. Big data profiles people. It has all sorts of information about them — consumer behavior, everything available in public records, voting, demography. It profiles people and then it sorts people into winners and losers in various ways. Are you persuadable as a voter or are you not persuadable as a voter? Are you likely to be vulnerable to a payday loan advertisement or are you impervious to that payday loan advertisement? So you have scores in a multitude of ways. The framing of it by the people who own these models is that it’s going to benefit the world because more information is better. When, of course, what’s really going on and what I wanted people to know about is that it’s a rigged system, a system based on surveillance and on asymmetry of information where the people who have the power have much more information about you than you have about them. They use that to score you and then to deny you or offer you opportunities.GAZETTE: How integrated are algorithms in our lives?O’NEIL: It depends. One of the things that I noticed in my research is that poor people, people of color, people who have less time on their hands to be more careful about how their data are collected are particularly vulnerable to the more pernicious algorithms. But all of us are subject to many, many algorithms, many of which we can’t even detect. Whenever we go online, whenever we buy insurance, whenever we apply for loans, especially if we look for peer-to-peer lending loans. We’re in election season — political advertising is one of the most aggressive fields of analytics that exist. We often think fondly of political advertising because we know that in fact Obama got a lot of donations and then Get Out the Vote, but it also has a dark side. I think it lowers the ability for people to be well-informed because essentially a lot of campaigns efficiently target people and show them what the campaigns want them to see, which is efficient for campaigns, but inefficient for democracy as a whole.The real misunderstanding that people have about algorithms is that they assume that they’re fair and objective and helpful. There’s no reason to think of them as objective because data itself is not objective and people who build these algorithms are not objective. But the most important thing to realize is they are intended to benefit the people who own them. So those people who own them are defining success and they often define success in terms of profit. And profit for that person does not necessarily mean something good for the target of that scoring system.Cathy O’Neil, data scientist and author of the new book “Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy,” discussed how some algorithms can have an invisible, but important and destructive impact on people’s lives. GAZETTE: Does the public realize how powerful and pervasive the issue is?O’NEIL: When I started this research four years ago, people seemed to be extremely naive and very, very happy about algorithms. We didn’t know how powerful they were; we didn’t seem to worry about them at all. I think things have changed somewhat since then. I think one of the reasons my book is getting a very positive reception is because people are starting to realize how extremely influential these algorithms are. … I still don’t think that they really quite understand how pernicious they can be and often, that’s because we’re not typically subject to the worst of the algorithms: the ones that keep people from having jobs because they don’t pass the personality test, the ones that sentence criminal defendants to longer in jail if they’re deemed a high recidivism risk, or even the ones that are arbitrary punishments for schoolteachers. The people who are building these models, the data scientists, are typically not subject to the worst of these consequences. Somehow we think big data is a great thing partly because it employs us, but also because we just don’t have to deal with the worst consequences.GAZETTE: What’s the fatal flaw? The biases of the human modelers, the lack of transparency and outside scrutiny, the apolitical nature of people in math and technology valuing efficiency and profitability over human costs and fairness?O’NEIL: There are a lot of issues, but the most obvious one is the trust itself: that we don’t push back on algorithmic decisioning, and it’s in part because we trust mathematics and in part because we’re afraid of mathematics as a public. What we need to do is stop trusting these scoring systems. Definitely, the data scientists should know better, but the people that we’re scoring should refuse to go along with it.GAZETTE: You suggest data scientists take a Hippocratic-type oath. How would that help? Do they understand how flawed and dangerous their work is/can be?O’NEIL: They don’t. They never think about it, almost ever. I think some of them are incapable of understanding it even if it was explained to them because they don’t want to know. But I think a lot of them are trained to think they’re technicians rather than ethicists. They don’t see that as part of their job.GAZETTE: What would an oath do — help bring the issue to their consciousness?O’NEIL: Yes. It’s not just the oath, I want them to read this book, I want them to really have conversations with other data scientists who are also concerned about ethics, about what it means for an algorithm to be racist. It’s not even a well-defined term yet. We have to define our terms in order to avoid being racist.GAZETTE: What else needs to be done?O’NEIL: The good thing is that algorithms could be really great if we make sure they’re fair and legal and we had enough understanding of them to make sure that they weren’t doing the wrong thing. So I have hope we can some day use data and algorithms to help us sentence people to prison in a less racist manner. Right now, we just haven’t done that. We’ve just thrown a model at the system and assumed that it was going to be perfect.We absolutely need to update anti-discrimination laws and data-protection laws, to modify them to be able to deal with the big data era. Because right now, we’re way behind with that. Here’s one example: The laws that have to do with lending only apply to companies that have direct credit offers to customers. But peer-to-peer lending bypasses them because they basically create a platform to pair lenders and borrowers. They put credit scores on those borrowers and those credit scores don’t have to follow anti-discrimination laws because they’re not directly lending. We need to update the anti-discrimination laws to make them responsible. It should be illegal for them to use race and gender, for example, in those credit scores and right now, they’re using social media data.This interview has been edited for clarity and length.
This is one in a series of profiles showcasing some of Harvard’s stellar graduates.Theodore R. (Teddy) Delwiche, a graduating senior concentrating in classical languages and literatures, is as adept at reading and speaking ancient Latin and Greek as he is digging for stories. And while he could have contained these skills to his undergraduate coursework and a three-year stint at the Harvard Crimson, Delwiche chose to share them with scholars, writers, and scientists through the Radcliffe Institute Research Partnership program (RPP).This Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study’s partnership program matches students with its fellows who act as mentors. In his junior year, Delwiche conducted archival research with author and journalist Michael Pollan, who was the 2015-16 Suzanne Young Murray Fellow at the institute. (Pollan is now the Lewis K. Chan Arts Lecturer and professor of the practice of nonfiction in the Department of English.)In a video, Pollan praised the “indispensable work” Delwiche did for him, saying, “His idea of a good time is to find an archive where no other undergraduate has ever been.”“From the start, I always thought of my Radcliffe experience almost like a fifth class — which you get paid for,” said Delwiche. “It always felt too good to be true, and it’s been such a treat to be part of it.”A family interestDelwiche grew up on the outskirts of Baltimore, in the middle of a large family: four older brothers, a twin brother, and three younger sisters. Their parents encouraged academics; both earned doctoral degrees in the sciences, their father is an agricultural scientist at the United States Department of Agriculture, and their mother was a math professor who works now for the Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services.“I think all of us have, at some point in high school, done Latin, just as a foundation,” Delwiche said. “I studied Greek as well, sort of on a whim — I just had an extra block.”Applying to colleges, Delwiche knew his direction. “I wanted to do classics, and I was into journalism,” he said. “That’s what I wrote my admissions essays on.” He arrived at Harvard with those twin loves — and his twin brother, Noah ’18, who studied philosophy along with Latin and Greek.Letting the classics lead the wayOnce he’d settled in, Delwiche set out to find a job or research opportunity that would intersect with his academic interests. He discovered the RRP. “I was intrigued to see a posting for a Medieval Latin research assistant; the only one I’ve seen and perhaps will ever see,” he said.So, he spent his freshman year assisting Mary Franklin-Brown, the 2013–14 Mildred Londa Weisman Fellow and a professor at the University of Minnesota, doing research, collecting and creating a bibliography, and exposing himself to different genres of Latin literature.Delwiche enjoyed the experience so much that he returned to RRP his second year. This time, he worked with Ben Miller, a 2014–15 fellow, as one of four students on “Team Lilac.” For that project, Delwiche sought out Latin and Greek poetry related to fauna and flora, specifically lilacs. “It was a little quirky,” Delwiche said of the project, “but it worked.”Miller praised Delwiche’s “amiable collaborative spirit, intellectual agility, and diligent dedication to thorough preparation” during that time. “I mean, he was literally, joyfully, roaming the catacombs of Widener until closing time to locate the most fabulous esoteric sprigs of data to deliver to our weekly meetings.”Crimson tiesDelwiche brought a journalist’s investigative approach to his next Radcliffe research project. Pollan was writing a book about psychedelics, in which Timothy Leary’s time at Harvard in the 1960s plays an integral part. “Harvard is really what put psychedelics on the map, and also what took them off the map,” said Delwiche.Delwiche found a mentor in Pollan. “Michael was a really great fellow to work with, and he helped me in terms of thinking about journalism as a career versus academia — he shared a lot about his own path,” he said. “I was always juggling these two very sincere interests, journalism and classics. At times, journalism won out.”In 2016–17, with both Delwiche brothers, classics won out. In October 2016, they headed to Rome, where they both undertook a fellowship in classical studies taught exclusively in Latin and ancient Greek at the Accademia Vivarium Novum. “There are students from across the world, and you’re only allowed to speak Latin and Greek for the entire year — there’s little to no internet, no TV, no other amenities that we associate with 21st-century college life. We took it very seriously, much to the chagrin of our friends who would try to email us or Skype us,” Delwiche said. “When we were able to catch internet at a cafe, we’d still speak Latin with them, even if they didn’t understand.”With “every moment a learning opportunity,” Delwiche said, his interest in ancient languages was reinvigorated. Upon his return, and financed by a Lester Kissel Grant in Practical Ethics, he embarked on a senior thesis about classics education in Colonial New England, specifically at 17th- and 18th-century Harvard College. Advised by Professor Ann Blair, the Carl H. Pforzheimer University Professor, he dove into various archives, such as those at Houghton Library and the Massachusetts Historical Society, looking for notebooks of Harvard students, who at the time were required to speak Latin, Greek, or Hebrew.“I was looking at student work that hasn’t been translated or even really looked at — a lot of Americans don’t care about Latin, and a lot of Latinists don’t care about America,” said Delwiche. “So I tried to bridge those two.”An earlier class on the fall of the Roman Empire with Professor Michael McCormick had sparked an interest in the viticulture of what is present-day Bordeaux. “The Romans transported and did a lot of the work on the French landscape,” said Delwiche. “One of my favorite Latin authors is a poet named Ausonius, who wrote a long poem praising the Moselle River — about the wine and the vineyards.” Upon his return to Cambridge, he joined the Harvard Wine Club. With guidance from experts, he’s enjoyed tasting wines and learning about the various terroirs of France. “It’s been a terrific thing to do as a senior.”An unexpected return to RRPDelwiche arrived back at Harvard with a refreshed interest in his concentration and intending to focus on his thesis. When Paul J. Kosmin, the John L. Loeb Associate Professor of the Humanities, and 2017–18 Joy Foundation Fellow at Radcliffe, approached him about bringing his expertise to one of his fellowship projects, Delwiche turned him down in favor of concentrating on his research and other commitments.After buckling down with his thesis over the fall semester, Delwiche reconsidered Kosmin’s offer. Now he finds himself back with the RRP. “I’m getting paid to read Greek literature,” he said. “My job is to read through the entire Platonic corpus, looking for expressions, terms of phrases, and idioms that deal with the beach or seafaring. … It might have been only three years, but as it turns out, I’ve been involved every single year,” said Delwiche of the RRP.Delwiche’s work as a peer advising fellow for freshmen has opened up the possibility of teaching. After Commencement, as he helps out with Harvard Summer School, Delwiche will consider one of two tracks: continuing his investigation into classics education in early modern Europe and America or using a novel approach to teach high school students the classics.Either way, he’ll still be getting paid to read the classics.
After gardening in the blazing sun all day, there is nothing better than enjoying the fruits (or flowers) of your labor in the evening, glass of wine in hand. Staff members with the Trial Gardens at the University of Georgia are offering gardeners, and garden fans, the chance to experience the fruits of their hard work this summer with the seventh annual “Evening in the Garden,” set for Thursday, Oct. 9, from 6:30 to 8 p.m. The gardens are open to the public daily, but one of the best times to visit the garden is in the evening as the sun is setting—when the garden takes on a relaxing, romantic ambiance. There is no better time to do this than during the “Evening in the Garden” event. “As the sun is setting low in the sky, the harsh sunlight is filtered and one can really enjoy the vibrant flower colors found in the garden,” said John Ruter, director of the Trial Gardens and a professor in the UGA Department of Horticulture. “Also, with the weather cooling off, many of the flowers that suffered through the heat of the summer will perk up and start blooming again before first frost later in the year.” Since 1982, the Trial Gardens at the University of Georgia have been used as a literal testing ground for plants from around the world. By testing new breeds of annuals and perennials, the Trial Gardens’ staff has helped introduce new plants to the Southeast’s green industry and the general public. While the Trial Gardens’ plant evaluations are respected across the globe, the gardens themselves remain a beautiful, secluded getaway in the middle of the university’s bustling campus. The event will highlight plants that have survived the summer heat and flourish in the fall. Ruter will lead tours of the garden, provide fall gardening advice and share his impressions of this year’s new plants. For gardeners who are planning to add some trees and shrubs to their landscapes this fall, signed copies of Ruter’s latest book, “Landscaping with Conifers and Ginkgo for the Southeast,” will be for sale for $30. Guests can enjoy a pleasant stroll through the Trial Gardens while experiencing a taste of the Mediterranean, with snacks and wine provided by The Healthy Gourmet in Athens and Oli + Ve’s of Roswell’s collection of olive oil. The Paul Nelson Jazz Combo will provide entertainment, and pottery by Athens potter Elise Binder will be on display. “An Evening in the Garden” is an event for all ages. A $7 donation is requested and goes to help sustain the gardens. Parking will be available in the McPhaul Center parking lot across from Stegeman Coliseum. The Trial Gardens are located at 220 W. Green St. between Snelling Dining Commons and the UGA Pharmacy Building. Please RSVP at email@example.com. For more information, call Juliet Swanson at (770) -298-9151 or email her at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Olympian Allyson Felix breaks world record held by Usain Bolt 10 months after having a baby Felix welcomed her daughter into the world last November via emergency C-section performed when she was just 32 weeks pregnant due to severe pre-eclampsia, a dangerous pregnancy condition that threatened the life of both the runner and her unborn child. She began competing again in July, when she was just 8 months postpartum. Randall Reeves, 57, of California, left San Francisco on September 30, 2018 in an attempt to circumnavigate both the American and Antarctic continents in a sailboat in one season. Reeves’ solo attempt has taken him through all of the world’s oceans and by the time he reaches home on his projected return date of October 19, 2019, Reeves will have sailed more than 40,000 miles, surviving for months alone at sea, often navigating by sextant and starlight. Reeves has made his journey in a 45-foot aluminum sloop nicknamed “Mo.” According to a press release, the vessel has no hot water or refrigeration and does not have powered winches or sails. Among other feats of endurance, Reeves has gone for months without regular phone contact and limited data uplinks and even went more than 200 days without changing his pants. Follow the final days of his record-breaking journey on Facebook @Figure8Voyage. There’s a new rule to protect Florida’s native songbirds American Olympic sprinter Allyson Felix, 33, has crushed a world record previously held by the world’s fastest man, Usain Bolt, and she’s done it just 10 months after giving birth. Felix competed for Team USA in the mixed-gender 4X400 relay at the World Championships last weekend in Doha, Qatar and won gold in the event. It was the 12th gold medal Felix has won at the world championships, edging her past Bolt’s record for most gold medals won by a single athlete at the world championships. Illegal poaching of Florida’s native songbirds is a widespread problem in the state, especially in south Florida where trapping is thought to be widespread. Illegally captured birds are often mistreated or injured and killed when trapped. For more information on the new rule visit MyFWC.com/Birdtraps. Man on track to become first person to circumnavigate American and Antarctic continents in one season The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission has created a new rule to protect the state’s native songbirds from illegal trapping. The new rule is effective October 3 and provides a new tool for law enforcement to stop illegal poaching. The rule contains exemptions for lawful uses of traps and includes a permitting process for people that trap nonnative nuisance birds. The new rule requires all traps to be labeled, even if the trapper has a permit, other authorization or exemption.
Sign up for our COVID-19 newsletter to stay up-to-date on the latest coronavirus news throughout New York New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo wants tougher penalties for texting-while-driving.With distracted driving crashes in New York State outpacing alcohol-related crashes in recent years, Gov. Andrew Cuomo has decided to push an effort to get tougher on drivers texting behind the wheel—and it all starts this weekend.The governor has directed the Department of Motor Vehicles to increase the number of points for convicted texting-while-driving offenders to five from three, starting Saturday, he announced at a press conference in Manhattan on Friday.Cuomo also unveiled his own legislation that if passed by the state legislature would result in 60-day license suspensions for young drivers with probationary and junior licenses who are caught sending messages to their friends while behind the wheel—something 43 percent of teenagers admit to doing.“Inattention and inexperience is a deadly combination—one this legislation seeks to deter,” Cuomo said. “We are urging young and inexperienced drivers to keep their eyes on the road and hands on the wheel, while putting stronger penalties in place for drivers of all ages who violate the law and put others in danger.”“No parent,” he added, “should have to experience losing a child at the hands of a text message.”The governor Friday used the forum to portray texting-while-driving as a growing—and dangerous—trend at the same time that alcohol-related driving has declined.Distracted driving crashes have increased while alcohol-related crashes has gone down, officials said.There was a 143 percent increase in cell phone-related crashes in New York State from 2005 to 2011 while alcohol-related crashes dropped 18 percent over that same time. And distracted driving was also blamed for more than 25,000 crashes statewide in 2011, compared to 4,628 caused by alcohol.Drivers that take their eyes off the road for 4.6 seconds—the average time it takes to send or receive a text—while travelling 55 mph is the equivalent of driving an entire football field while blind, the governor noted.The Center for Disease Control and Prevention released a report last month that said more than nine people are killed each day in the United States in distracted driving-related crashes. Also, inexperienced drivers under the age of 20 have the highest proportion of distraction-related crashes, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.In addition to his proposed legislation, the governor also directed state police to increase enforcement starting this weekend.“Distracted drivers will not be tolerated in New York State,” New York State Police Superintendent Joseph A. D’Amico said in a statement. “Drivers who text or talk on mobile devices while behind the wheel not only take their attention from the road, but also put lives at risk. Our message is clear—motorists who use a cell phone or electronic device while driving will be ticketed.”
This finding could mean that the Capitol area generally was contaminated with anthrax, which fits with certain environmental sampling data, or it could mean that some subjects were exposed to the anthrax envelope before it was opened or had contact with those in groups 1 and 2, the article says. The other three groups, enrolled for comparison, were from outside the Capitol area and consisted of (5) 2 people who had contracted anthrax infections as a result of previous attacks in 2001, (6) 12 with no anthrax exposure, and (7) 7 who were unexposed but had previously been vaccinated against anthrax. Among nonimmunized people, anthrax antibodies were found only in those who were in the building at the time of the attack, mostly in those who were in Daschle’s offices (when tested before vaccination). Anthrax was found in the nasopharyngeal samples of slightly less than half (47.5%) of workers in groups 1 and 2, including all 13 who were in the office where the letter was opened and lesser proportions of those in adjoining offices. None of the people outside the building had positive samples. All the volunteers in groups 1, 2, and 3 (those in the building when the letter was opened) were given antibiotic treatment immediately, and 10 of the 20 people in group 4 (those outside the building but in the vicinity) also opted to take antibiotics. In addition, 51 of the 59 people in groups 1 and 2 received 3 doses of anthrax vaccine starting several weeks after the attack. The postexposure 3-dose vaccination schedule was “highly immunogenic,” given that anti-PA antibodies were found in more than 94% of subjects and CMI responses were seen in more than 86%, the researchers write. In other studies, 99% to 100% seroconversion was seen with a preventive 3-dose schedule. The standard anthrax vaccination schedule, used in the US military, involves 6 doses over 18 months. The researchers studied 124 people, divided into seven groups. The first four groups consisted of (1) 28 people who were in or near Daschle’s office and had positive nasopharyngeal cultures for anthrax, (2) 31 who were in or near the office but had negative cultures, (3) 24 who were elsewhere in the Hart Senate Office Building, and (4) 20 who were outside the building but in the Capitol area (and were presumed to be unexposed). Scientists who prospectively studied people who were in the vicinity when the letter was opened report that even people who were outside the building showed immune responses to anthrax, suggesting that the deadly spores spread more widely than expected. The letter was one of several mailed to two US senators and several media offices in the fall of 2001, resulting in 22 cases of anthrax, 5 of them fatal. Two tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fluorescence-activated cell sorting) were used to examine the subjects’ antibody and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to two anthrax proteins: protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF). They conclude that antibiotic treatment protected the infected subjects, who were generally young, from becoming clinically ill. “We do not know whether higher exposure could result in clinical disease even with antibiotics or what happens in immunocompromised or immunologically immature populations,” they state. “Despite postexposure prophylaxis with antibiotics, inhalation of B[acillus] anthracis spores resulted in stimulation of the immune system and possibly subclinical infection, and the greater the exposure, the more complete the immune response,” says the report by Denise L. Doolan of the Naval Medical Research Center in Silver Spring, Md., and associates from there and several other institutions. “Our data demonstrate that exposure to B. anthracis spores primed antibody and cellular responses in a dose-dependent and antigen-specific manner in immunized and unimmunized subjects, enhanced AVA-boost responses, and boosted recall responses in previously immunized subjects,” the researchers write. No significant differences in symptoms were seen between subjects with and without anthrax exposure and with and without immune responses, except for headache, which was more common in exposed people but correlated with the duration of antibiotic use. Jan 10, 2007 (CIDRAP News) The anthrax-laced letter sent to Sen. Tom Daschle’s office in 2001 may have affected more people than was recognized at the time, but the antibiotics and vaccinations given to potentially exposed people were highly effective, according to an immunologic study of the event. See also: The researchers, writing in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, also report that those who were exposed showed immune responses to anthrax even though they were immediately put on preventive antibiotic treatment. Further, they found that 3 doses of anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA)versus the standard 6-dose regimentriggered a strong immune response in those who were vaccinated after the attack. The researchers also report an inverse relationship between CMI responses and antibiotic treatment, which suggested that the treatment impeded anthrax spore germination, the report says. In the previously vaccinated volunteerswho were revaccinated during the studyimmune responses were strong even after a single new dose of vaccine. Doolan DL, Freilich DA, Brice GT, et al. The US Capitol bioterrorism anthrax exposures: clinical epidemiological and immunological characteristics. J Infect Dis 2007 Jan 15;195(2):174-84 [Full text] In the tests for CMI, the researchers found a direct relationship between presumed anthrax exposure and response rate. Unexpectedly, however, they found evidence of CMI in some people who were outside the building (group 4). For example, monocytic responses were detected in more than 70% of groups 1 and 2, 37.5% of group 3, and 30% of group 4. Monocytic responses for group 4 were significantly higher than those for unexposed controls (group 6). Hadler JL. Learning from the 2001 anthrax attacks: immunological characteristics. (Editorial) J Infect Dis 2007 Jan 15;195(2):163-4 [Full text] The data suggest, they add, that low-level anthrax exposure induces asymptomatic cellular immune responses without antibodies and that intermediate exposure induces both cellular and antibody responses.
Willian will join Arsenal this weekend (Picture: Getty)Former Chelsea winger Willian stands to earn £35million over three years at Arsenal after agreeing a deal with the Gunners that will effectively see him earn £220,000-a-week.The Gunners expect to announce the capture of the 32-year-old this weekend following Willian’s exit from Chelsea this week.Willian had been happy to stay at Stamford Bridge but the Blues were unwilling to hand him the three-year deal he craved.Arsenal were willing to do so and the Gunners agreed a basic salary with Willian of around £100,000-a-week, which is a dip on the £120,000-a-week he earned in west London.ADVERTISEMENTHowever, the Daily Mail claim that Willian was persuaded to join the Gunners after the offer of a huge signing-on fee that will significantly boost his basic weekly salary. Advertisement Metro Sport ReporterThursday 13 Aug 2020 10:55 pmShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link6.7kShares Willian will sign a three-year deal with the option of a fourth year (Picture: Getty)Once this figure is taken into account alongside other ‘loyalty’ bonuses and appearance fees, it’s claimed Willian will earn around £220,000-a-week.AdvertisementAdvertisement‘He would have got nowhere near that money at Chelsea,’ a source told the Mail.‘The signing-on fee reflects that it is a free transfer and if he sees out the duration it’s a great deal for him.’That would make him the second highest earner at the club behind Mesut Ozil and the deal raises question marks over Arsenal’s recent decision to make 55 employees redundant.The news was widely criticised and it’s even claimed Arsenal pushed back the announcement of Willian’s arrival as it reflected poorly on the club. Even more bizarrely is the claim that the 32-year-old’s deal will include the option of a fourth year and the deal is bound to raise eyebrows.More: FootballRio Ferdinand urges Ole Gunnar Solskjaer to drop Manchester United starChelsea defender Fikayo Tomori reveals why he made U-turn over transfer deadline day moveMikel Arteta rates Thomas Partey’s chances of making his Arsenal debut vs Man CityMikel Arteta is likely to offload a number of fringe players following Willian’s arrival in a bid to balance the books.The Spaniard has been told he must sale before he can but this summer and the likes of Mesut Ozil, Matteo Guendouzi, Sead Kolasinac, Ainsley Maitland-Niles and Rob Holding have been put up for sale.Should the Gunners make a number of sales, they will reconsider their indifference at paying the £45m release clause in Thomas Partey’s contract at Atletico Madrid.The Gunners had decided against doing so, preferring to offer the likes of Guendouzi in exchange instead.But their budget this summer is dependent upon the amount of players they can sale. MORE: West Ham set asking price for Chelsea to sign Declan Rice View 8 comments Advertisement Willian to earn £35m at Arsenal after agreeing eye-watering £220,000-a-week deal
ARC Fiduciary has launched an Energy Transition Opportunity Fund, which will invest in infrastructure projects focusing on the transition from fossil fuel to renewable energy in the US.Ingram started his career as a specialist in sustainability and private markets at APG in Amsterdam.He has also served as chairman of APG working group Principles for Responsible-Investment Hedge Funds, as well as manager of APG’s Opportunities Fund.Dempsey Gable, co-manager of ARC’s climate fund, has also managed the same fund at APG.APG said it had not yet appointed Ingram’s successor and that his tasks had been divided across the organisation.It added that it was too early to say whether it would commit assets to Ingram’s new funds. Paulus Ingram, head of hedge fund investing at APG, has left the Dutch asset manager to co-found a US-based institutional manager focusing on sustainable investing.The new company, ARC Fiduciary, will seek to achieve financial outperformance while contributing to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.Ingram, who has worked at APG since 2010, operated from the company’s New York office, where he was responsible for more than €25bn in hedge fund holdings.He pointed to a “considerable” lack of sustainable-investment opportunities for large institutional investors and said many pension funds wanted to reduce their carbon footprint significantly.
The deck area of the pontoon being proposed would be more than three times as big as BCC’s current “acceptable outcome”, according to the application, 84sq m instead of 25sq m. As well, the length of the pontoon (28m) would be about three times that of the current 10m length “acceptable”. Queensland’s richest man is looking to put in one of the biggest private jetties the city has seen at his home in Fig Tree Pocket. Picture: Steve Pohlner.Queensland’s richest man Clive Palmer has asked for special permission to build one of Brisbane’s largest private home jetties to moor his yacht by his riverside mansion.Records show his builders Coastal Pontoon & Jetty Repairs asked Brisbane City Council for a development permit for “tidal works” at Palmer’s Fig Tree Pocket home – but “the proposed pontoon is significantly larger that the dimensions and areas” that BCC considers acceptable. Quade Cooper finally sells off Bulimba pad A file photo from four years ago when “Maximus” was moored next to Clive Palmer’s mansion on Sovereign Island on the Gold Coast. Picture: Lyndon MechielsenMr Palmer’s property has 131.5m river frontage, it said, and currently has “a rock revetment wall and a boat ramp and an existing pontoon”.More from newsParks and wildlife the new lust-haves post coronavirus9 hours agoNoosa’s best beachfront penthouse is about to hit the market9 hours ago“As part of the proposal the existing pontoon will be replaced by two pontoons placed side-by-side (double pontoon).”The application acknowledged that “the proposal cannot meet AO2.1 of the code” but argued it met performance outcomes.Mr Palmer bought the Fig Tree Pocket home for $7.5m – a $2m discount on the listed price – off Linc Energy founder, Peter Bond, in 2018, and has since set about turning it into one of the best homes in Brisbane. FOLLOW SOPHIE FOSTER ON TWITTER Video Player is loading.Play VideoPlayNext playlist itemMuteCurrent Time 0:00/Duration 0:58Loaded: 0%Stream Type LIVESeek to live, currently playing liveLIVERemaining Time -0:58 Playback Rate1xChaptersChaptersDescriptionsdescriptions off, selectedCaptionscaptions settings, opens captions settings dialogcaptions off, selectedQuality Levels720p720pHD432p432p216p216p180p180pAutoA, selectedAudio Tracken (Main), selectedFullscreenThis is a modal window.Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window.TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal DialogEnd of dialog window.This is a modal window. This modal can be closed by pressing the Escape key or activating the close button.Close Modal DialogThis is a modal window. This modal can be closed by pressing the Escape key or activating the close button.PlayMuteCurrent Time 0:00/Duration 0:00Loaded: 0%Stream Type LIVESeek to live, currently playing liveLIVERemaining Time -0:00 Playback Rate1xFullscreenHow much do I need to retire?00:58 Clive Palmer has been busy turning his Fig Tree Pocket home into one of Brisbane’s best. Picture: Steve Pohlner.The application said “the proposal seeks approval to replace the existing pontoon attached to the premise and add a second pontoon deck to create a longer structure to accommodate the private vessel used by (Mr Palmer)”.It said “the pontoon has been designed to accommodate the landowner’s private vessel which has a maximum length of 23m, 5.5m width and 1.6m depth”.The last anyone heard of Mr Palmer’s most famous vessel – Maximus II – was when it was put on the market in San Diego mid-2019 for $US3.275m. Maximus II is 32.31m, and thus longer than the 28m one that the development application refers to. Hands-free homebuying, gloves, set to be the norm MORE: Darius Boyd sells Brisbane home